Sports Specific Training
Performance has a mixed definition depending on the motivations of the athletes and their supporters. Goals may vary from physical achievement in skills performance to win-loss records in youth sports.
A.1 Sports specific skills: Individual sports naturally have greater demands on specific muscle groups. Hence for a, foot ball quarter back training routine design is emphasized on upper torso for throwing. For a track and field hurdler, lower extreme development is more apt.
B.2 Sport technique execution: Improper technique, asymmetric routines and repetitive maneuvers.
B.2.a Improper technique: Valuable information is gained by monitoring the technical execution of various training routines in sport. For example, Long distance runner who displays improper technique with excessive twisting pelvic sway or straightened knee strike, which is considered as a poor running technique, can induce problems such as Pyriformis syndrome, in which sciatic nerve is sandwiched between Pyriformis and gamellus muscles in the pelvic region, causing radiating pain into leg, tingling etc.
Other examples include improper landing in running by foot ball, tennis players results in ACL injury (ligament injury of the knee). Practising proper technique is the most important task in training to avoid unnecessary problems.
B.2.b Asymmetric Routines: A common place example is with competitive weight lifting, in which a clean and jerk maneuver explosively lifts heavy barbell weights over weight lifter’s head. This maneuver is often performed with one leg repetitively thrusting forward and the other leg thrusting backward for balance. By failing to alternate both legs to ensure symmetric training, individual muscle groups become over trained. These over trained muscle groups overpower their opposite muscles. As a result weight lifters can develop functional scoliosis (side bending of spine). The coaches are needed to be aware of the potential consequences of asymmetry while designing their training regimens.
B.2.c Repetitive maneuvers: Repetitive motion creates fatigue stress. Ballet maneuvers represent such repetitive motion injuries. The repetitive extremes of rolling of foot, known as sickling raises the body up to the point position on the toes. This action jams the os trigonum bones behind the ankle and fatigues the big toe tendons resulting polyp formation or tears. at times fracture of the bones behind the ankle. The coach should be able to identify the fatigue and stress caused due to repetitive motion and take appropriate measures.
Performance Peaking: A major goal in the principles of cyclic training is enhancement of peak performance throughout the athletic season. Periodization is best defined as a system for applied cyclic variances in training intensity and workload throughout the competitive season to acclimate the athlete’s body to reach higher levels of performance in avoidance of fatigue or injury.
This step graded approach super compensates the athlete to achieve higher levels of performance and endurance. In general, the cyclic 3:1 Day rule is instituted by trainers and coaches to accomplish this cyclic task. Athletic training is progressively intensified over 3 days and then followed immediately by a mandatory 1 day rest for recovery and protein synthesis.
c.1 Micropeaking: Micropeaking is defined as a period of four daily practise sessions in which athlete’s body is gradually stressed to higher levels of performance in three of four sessions. The fourth session becomes the vital period of rest. After the rest session is completed, a new cycle of training starts.
c.2 Macropeaking: Macropeaking is best defined as monthly cycle of several weeklong sessions graduated over the course of the entire season, peaking the athlete three quarters of the way through the season to maximise the performance. With macro peaking principles, workout sessions tend to increase in their intensity and load over 3 weeks of workouts followed by 1 week of low level activity for rest and rebound.
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